Tuesday, 22 October 2013

Quotes on Life by William Shakespeare

Biography of Allama Muhammad Iqbal

Muhammad Iqbal
محمد اقبال
Born9 November 1877
SialkotPunjabBritish India
Died21 April 1938 (aged 60)
Lahore, Punjab, British India
Era20th century philosophy
RegionBritish India
Main interestsUrdu poetryPersian poetry
Notable ideasTwo-Nation Theory,Conception of Pakistan
WebsiteAllama Iqbal
Sir Muhammad Iqbal (Urduمحمد اقبال‎) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938), also known as Allama Iqbal (علامہ اقبال), was a philosopher,poet and politician[1] in British India who is widely regarded as having inspired the Pakistan Movement. He is considered one of the most important figures in Urdu literature,[2] with literary work in both the Urdu and Persian languages.[1][2]
Iqbal is admired as a prominent classical poet by PakistaniIndianIranian, and other international scholars of literature.[3][4] Though Iqbal is best known as an eminent poet, he is also a highly acclaimed "Muslim philosophical thinker of modern times".[1][4] His first poetry book, Asrar-e-Khudi, appeared in the Persian language in 1915, and other books of poetry include Rumuz-i-BekhudiPayam-i-Mashriq and Zabur-i-Ajam. Amongst these his best known Urdu works are Bang-i-DaraBal-i-JibrilZarb-i Kalim and a part ofArmughan-e-Hijaz.[5] In Iran and Afghanistan, he is famous as Iqbāl-e Lāhorī (اقبال لاهوری‎) (Iqbal of Lahore), and he is most appreciated for his Persian work.[6] Along with his Urdu and Persian poetry, his various Urdu and English lectures and letters have been very influential in cultural, social, religious and political disputes over the years.[5]
In 1922, he was knighted by King George V,[6][7] giving him the title "Sir".[8]
While studying law and philosophy in England, Iqbal became a member of the London branch of the All India Muslim League.[4][5]Later, in one of his most famous speeches, Iqbal pushed for the creation of a Muslim state in Northwest India. This took place in his presidential speech in the League's December 1930 session.[4][5] He was very close to the founder of Pakistan, Mohammad Ali Jinnah.[5]
In much of Southern Asia and Urdu speaking world, Iqbal is regarded as the Shair-e-Mashriq (شاعر مشرق, "Poet of the East").[9][10][11] He is also called Muffakir-e-Pakistan (مفکر پاکستان, "The Thinker of Pakistan") and Hakeem-ul-Ummat (حکیم الامت, "The Sage of the Ummah"). The Pakistan government officially named him a "national poet".[4] His birthday Yōm-e Welādat-e Muḥammad Iqbāl (یوم ولادت محمد اقبال) or (Iqbal Day) is a public holiday in Pakistan.[12] In India he is also remembered as the author of the popular song Saare Jahaan Se Achcha.

Biography of Bill Gates

Bill Gates
Head and shoulders photo of Bill Gates
Gates in 2013
BornWilliam Henry Gates III
October 28, 1955 (age 57)
SeattleWA, US
ResidenceMedina, WA, US
Alma materHarvard University
OccupationChairman of Microsoft
Co-Chair of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
CEO of Cascade Investment
Chairman of Corbis
Years active1975–present
Net worthUS$ 72 billion (2013)[1]
Board member of
Berkshire Hathaway
Spouse(s)Melinda Gates (1994–present)
ParentsWilliam H. Gates, Sr.
Mary Maxwell Gates
William H. Gates III

William Henry "Bill" Gates III (born October 28, 1955)[2] is an American business magnate, investor, programmer,[3] inventor[4] and philanthropist. Gates is the former chief executive and current chairman of Microsoft, the world’s largest personal-computer softwarecompany, which he co-founded with Paul Allen.
He is consistently ranked in the Forbes list of the world's wealthiest people[5] and was the wealthiest overall from 1995 to 2009—excluding 2008, when he was ranked third;[6] in 2011 he was the wealthiest American and the world's second wealthiest person.[7][8]According to the Bloomberg Billionaires List, Gates is the world's richest person in 2013, a position that he last held on the list in 2007.[1]
During his career at Microsoft, Gates held the positions of CEO and chief software architect, and remains the largest individual shareholder, with 6.4 percent of the common stock.[a] He has also authored and co-authored several books.
Gates is one of the best-known entrepreneurs of the personal computer revolution. Gates has been criticized for his business tactics, which have been considered anti-competitive, an opinion which has in some cases been upheld by the courts.[11][12] In the later stages of his career, Gates has pursued a number of philanthropic endeavors, donating large amounts of money to various charitable organizations and scientific research programs through the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, established in 2000.[13]
Gates stepped down as chief executive officer of Microsoft in January 2000. He remained as chairman and created the position of chief software architect for himself. In June 2006, Gates announced that he would be transitioning from full-time work at Microsoft to part-time work, and full-time work at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. He gradually transferred his duties to Ray Ozzie, chief software architect, and Craig Mundie, chief research and strategy officer. Gates's last full-time day at Microsoft was June 27, 2008. He remains at Microsoft as chairman.

Biography of Joseph Stalin

Joseph Stalin
Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин (Russian)
იოსებ ბესარიონის ძე სტალინი(Georgian)
JStalin Secretary general CCCP 1942 flipped.jpg
General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
In office
3 April 1922 – 16 October 1952
Preceded byVyacheslav Molotov
(as Responsible Secretary)
Succeeded byNikita Khrushchev
(office reestablished)
Chairman of the Council of Ministers
In office
6 May 1941 – 5 March 1953
First DeputiesNikolai Voznesensky
Vyacheslav Molotov
Preceded byVyacheslav Molotov
Succeeded byGeorgy Malenkov
People's Commissar for Defense of the Soviet Union
In office
19 July 1941 – 25 February 1946
Preceded bySemyon Timoshenko
Succeeded byNikolai Bulganin
after vacancy
Member of the Secretariat
In office
3 April 1922 – 5 March 1953
Full member of the Presidium
In office
25 March 1919 – 5 March 1953
Member of the Orgburo
In office
16 January 1919 – 5 March 1953
Personal details
Born18 December 1878
GoriTiflis Governorate,Russian Empire
Died5 March 1953 (aged 74)
Kuntsevo DachaKuntsevo,Russian SFSRSoviet Union
Resting placeLenin's MausoleumMoscow,Russian SFSRSoviet Union (9 March 1953 - 31 October 1961)
Kremlin Wall Necropolis, Moscow, Russian Federation(from 31 October 1961)
Political partyCommunist Party of the Soviet Union
Spouse(s)Ekaterina Svanidze (1906–1907)
Nadezhda Alliluyeva (1919–1932)
ChildrenYakov DzhugashviliVasily DzhugashviliSvetlana Alliluyeva
ReligionNone (atheist), formerlyGeorgian Orthodox

Military service
Allegiance Soviet Union
Service/branchSoviet Armed Forces
Years of service1943–1953
RankMarshal of the Soviet Union(1943–1945)
Generalissimus of the Soviet Union (1945–1953)
CommandsAll (supreme commander)
Battles/warsWorld War II
AwardsHero of the Soviet Union Hero of Socialist Labor medal.png Badge Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union.jpg
Ordervictory rib.png Ordervictory rib.png
Order of Red Banner ribbon bar.png Order of Red Banner ribbon bar.png 20 years saf rib.png Order of Lenin ribbon bar.png
Order of Lenin ribbon bar.png Order suvorov1 rib.png Ribbon bar for the medal for the Defense of Moscow.png Orderglory rib.png
OrdenSuheBator.png OrdenSuheBator.png Victoryjapan rib.png Victoryjapan rib.png
800thMoscowRibbon.gif Order redstar rib.png Order redstar rib.png Order redstar rib.png
Czechoslovak War Cross 1939-1945 Bar.png Czechoslovak War Cross 1939-1945 Bar.png TCH Rad Bileho Lva 5 tridy (1990) BAR.svg TCH Rad Bileho Lva 1 tridy (pre1990) BAR.svg Czechoslovak War Cross 1939-1945 Bar.png
Joseph Stalin or Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin (RussianИо́сиф Виссарио́нович Ста́линpronounced [ˈjosʲɪf vʲɪsɐˈrʲonəvʲɪt͡ɕ ˈstalʲɪn]; born Ioseb Besarionis dze JugashviliGeorgianიოსებ ბესარიონის ძე ჯუღაშვილიpronounced [iɔsɛb bɛsariɔnis d͡ze d͡ʒuɣaʃvili]; 18 December 1878[1] – 5 March 1953) was the de facto leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953.
Among the Bolshevik revolutionaries who took part in the Russian Revolution of 1917, Stalin was appointed General Secretary of the party's Central Committee in 1922. He subsequently managed to consolidate power following the 1924 death of Vladimir Lenin through suppressing Lenin's criticisms (in the postscript of his testament), expanding the functions of his role, all the while eliminating any opposition. By the late 1920s, he was the unchallenged leader of the Soviet Union. He remained general secretary until the post was abolished it in 1952, concurrently serving as the Premier of the Soviet Union from 1941 onward.
Under Joseph Stalin's rule, the concept of "socialism in one country" became a central tenet of Soviet society. He replaced the New Economic Policy introduced by Lenin in the early 1920s with a highly centralised command economy, launching a period ofindustrialization and collectivization that resulted in the rapid transformation of the USSR from an agrarian society into an industrial power.[2] However, the economic changes coincided with the imprisonment of millions of people in Soviet correctional labour camps[3]and the deportation of many others to remote areas.[3] The initial upheaval in agriculture disrupted food production and contributed to the catastrophic Soviet famine of 1932–1933, known as the Holodomor in Ukraine. Later, in a period that lasted from 1936–39, Stalin instituted a campaign against alleged enemies of his regime called the Great Purge, in which hundreds of thousands were executed. Major figures in the Communist Party, such as the old BolsheviksLeon Trotsky, and several Red Army leaders were killed after being convicted of plotting to overthrow the government and Stalin.[4]
In August 1939, Stalin entered into a non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany that divided their influence within Eastern Europe, but Germany later violated the agreement and launched a massive invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941. Despite heavy human and territorial losses, Soviet forces managed to halt the Nazi incursion after the decisive battles of Moscow and Stalingrad. After defeating the Axis powers on the Eastern Front, the Red Army captured Berlin in May 1945, effectively ending the war in Europe for theAllies.[5][6] The Soviet Union subsequently emerged as one of two recognized world superpowers, the other being the United States.[7]The Yalta and Potsdam conferences established communist governments loyal to the Soviet Union in the Eastern Bloc countries asbuffer states, which Stalin deemed necessary in case of another invasion. He also fostered close relations with Mao Zedong in Chinaand Kim Il-sung in North Korea.
Stalin led the Soviet Union through its post-war reconstruction phase, which saw a significant rise in tension with the Western worldthat would later be known as the Cold War. During this period, the USSR became the second country in the world to successfully develop a nuclear weapon, as well as launching the Great Plan for the Transformation of Nature in response to another widespread famine and the Great Construction Projects of Communism. In the years following his death, Stalin and his regime have been condemned on numerous occasions, most notably in 1956 when his successor Nikita Khrushchev denounced his legacy and initiated a process of de-Stalinization. He remains a controversial figure today, with many regarding him as a tyrant[8] similar to his wartime enemy Adolf Hitler; however, popular opinion within the Russian Federation is mixed.