Friday, 25 October 2013

Cache memory

1. Pronounced as Cash (like the money). Cache is a high-speed access area that can be either a reserved section of main memory or a storage device. The two main cache types are memory cache and disk cache. Memory cache is a portion on memory of high-speed static RAM (SRAM) and is effective because most programs access the same data or instructions over-and-over. By keeping as much of this information as possible in SRAM, the computer avoids accessing the slower DRAM. Most computers today come with L3 cache or L2 cache, while older computers included only L1 cache.
2. Like memory cachingdisk caching is used to access commonly accessed data. However, instead of using high-speed SRAM, a disk cache uses conventional main memory. The most recently accessed data from a disk is stored in a memory buffer. When a program needs to access data from the disk, it first checks the disk cache to see if the data is there. Disk caching can dramatically improve the performance of applications because accessing a byte of data in RAM can be thousands of times faster than accessing a byte on a hard drive.
3. Another cache is known as "Internet browser cache" also known as "Temporary Internet Files" in Internet Explorer. Internet cache is used to help improve how fast data is opened while browsing the Internet. In most cases, each time a web page is opened, it is sent to your browser's temporary cache on your hard drive. If that page is accessed again and has not been modified, the browser will open the page from your cache instead of downloading the page again. This saves users a lot of time, especially if that the user is using a modem, and can also help save the web page owner on bandwidth.
4. A cache server is a computer or network device that has been setup to store web pages that have been accessed by users on a network. Any user trying to access a web page that has already been stored on the cache server will be sent the stored version instead of downloading the web page again. This helps reduce network and Internet traffic congestion as well as saves the company on bandwidth costs.

VGA Card

video card (also called a video adapterdisplay cardgraphics cardgraphics boarddisplay adapter or graphics adapter) is an expansion card which generates a feed of output images to a display. Most video cards offer various functions such as accelerated rendering of 3D scenes and 2D graphics, MPEG-2/MPEG-4 decoding, TV output, or the ability to connect multiple monitors (multi-monitor).
Video hardware can be integrated into the motherboard or (as with more recent designs) the CPU, but all modern motherboards (and some from the 1980s) provide expansion ports to which a video card can be connected.[citation needed] In this configuration it is sometimes referred to as a video controller or graphics controller. Modern low-end to mid-range motherboards often include a graphics chipset manufactured by the developer of the northbridge (e.g. an AMD chipset with Radeon graphics or an Intel chipset with Intel graphics) on the motherboard. This graphics chip usually has a small quantity of embedded memory and takes some of the system's main RAM, reducing the total RAM available. This is usually called integrated graphics or on-board graphics, and is usually low in performance and undesirable for those wishing to run 3D applications. A dedicated graphics card on the other hand has its own Random Access Memory or RAM and Processor specifically for processing video images, and thus offloads this work from the CPU and system RAM. Almost all of these motherboards allow (PCI-E) the disabling of the integrated graphics chip in BIOS, and have anAGPPCI, or PCI Express(PCI-E) slot for adding a higher-performance graphics card in place of the integrated graphics.
ATI Radeon HD 4770 Graphics Card-oblique view.jpg
A Radeon HD 4770 card
Connects to
Motherboard via one of:
Display via one of:

Biography of John Henry Newman

His Eminence
John Henry Newman, C.O.
Cardinal Deacon of San Giorgio in Velabro
John Henry Newman by Sir John Everett Millais
Portrait of John Henry Newman
by John Everett Millais, 1881
Appointed12 May 1879
Term ended11 August 1890
PredecessorTommaso Maria Martinelli
SuccessorFrancis Aidan Gasquet
Other postsFellow of Oriel College, Oxford;Provost of the Birmingham Oratory
Ordination29 May 1825 (Church of England)
30 May 1847 (Catholic Church)
Created Cardinal12 May 1879
RankCardinal Deacon
Personal details
Born21 February 1801
London, England,
United Kingdom
Died11 August 1890 (aged 89)
Edgbaston, Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
BuriedOratory House,
RednalWest Midlands, England, United Kingdom
DenominationChurch of England (1801-1845), Catholic Church (1845-1890)
ParentsJohn Newman & Jemina Fourdrinier
Alma materOxford University
  • Cor ad Cor Loquitur
  • (Heart speaks unto Heart)
Coat of arms{{{coat_of_arms_alt}}}
Feast day9 October (Roman Catholic),[1]11 August (Church of England)
Beatified19 September 2010
Cofton Park, Birmingham, England
by Pope Benedict XVI
ShrinesBirmingham Oratory,
Edgbaston, England
John Henry Newman
Eminent Victorians - John Henry Newman.png
Other names"Dr. Newman", "Cardinal Newman"
Era19th-century philosophy
RegionWestern Philosophy
Main interestsFaith and rationality
Religious epistemology
Historical Theology
Christian apologetics
Philosophy of education
Liberal education
Notable ideasThe Development of doctrine
The Illative sense
John Henry Newman CO (21 February 1801 – 11 August 1890[2][3]), also referred to as Cardinal Newman and the Blessed John Henry Newman, was an important figure in the religious history of England in the 19th century. He was known nationally by the mid-1830s.[4]
Originally an evangelical Oxford academic and priest in the Church of England, Newman was a leader in the Oxford Movement. This influential grouping of Anglicans wished to return the Church of England to many Catholic beliefs and forms of worship traditional in the medieval times to restore ritual expression. In 1845 Newman left the Church of England and was received into the Roman Catholic Church where he was eventually granted the rank of cardinal by Pope Leo XIII. He was instrumental in the founding of the Catholic University of Ireland,[5] which evolved into University College, Dublin, today, the largest university in Ireland.
Newman's beatification was officially proclaimed by Pope Benedict XVI on 19 September 2010 during his visit to the United Kingdom.[1]His canonisation is dependent on the documentation of additional miracles.
Newman was also a literary figure of note: his major writings including his autobiography Apologia Pro Vita Sua (1865–66), theGrammar of Assent (1870), and the poem The Dream of Gerontius (1865), which was set to music in 1900 by Edward Elgar as an oratorio.[3] He wrote the popular hymns "Lead, Kindly Light" and "Praise to the Holiest in the Height" (taken from Gerontius).

Biography of William Wordsworth

William Wordsworth
William Wordsworth 001.jpg
Portrait of William Wordsworth by Benjamin Robert Haydon (National Portrait Gallery).
Born7 April 1770
Wordsworth HouseCockermouth, Kingdom of Great Britain
Died23 April 1850 (aged 80)
Cumberland, United Kingdom
Alma materCambridge University
Literary movementRomanticism
Notable work(s)Lyrical BalladsPoems in Two VolumesThe ExcursionThe Prelude
William Wordsworth (7 April 1770 – 23 April 1850) was a major English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with the 1798 joint publication Lyrical Ballads.
Wordsworth's magnum opus is generally considered to be The Prelude, a semiautobiographical poem of his early years which he revised and expanded a number of times. It was posthumously titled and published, prior to which it was generally known as "the poem to Coleridge". Wordsworth was Britain's Poet Laureate from 1843 until his death in 1850.

Biography of George Eliot

George Eliot
George Eliot at 30 by François D'Albert Durade.jpg
Aged 30 by the Swiss artist Alexandre Louis François d'Albert Durade (1804–86)
BornMary Anne Evans
22 November 1819
South Farm, Arbury HallNuneaton, Warwickshire, England
Died22 December 1880 (aged 61)
4 Cheyne WalkChelsea, London, England
Resting placeHighgate Cemetery (East), Highgate, London
Pen nameGeorge Eliot
Notable work(s)The Mill on the Floss (1860), Silas Marner (1861), Middlemarch (1871–72), Daniel Deronda (1876)
Spouse(s)John Cross (1880; her death)
Partner(s)George Henry Lewes (1854–78) (his death)
Relative(s)Robert Evans and Christiana Pearson (parents); Christiana, Isaac, Robert, and Fanny (siblings)
Mary Anne (alternatively Mary Ann or MarianEvans (22 November 1819 – 22 December 1880), known by her pen name George Eliot, was an English novelist, journalist, and translator and one of the leading writers of the Victorian era. She is the author of seven novels, including Adam Bede (1859), The Mill on the Floss (1860), Silas Marner (1861), Middlemarch (1871–72), and Daniel Deronda(1876), most of them set in provincial England and known for their realism and psychological insight.
She used a male pen name, she said, to ensure her works would be taken seriously. Female authors were published under their own names during Eliot's life, but she wanted to escape the stereotype of women only writing lighthearted romances. An additional factor in her use of a pen name may have been a desire to shield her private life from public scrutiny and to prevent scandals attending her relationship with the married George Henry Lewes, with whom she lived for over 20 years.[1]
Her 1872 work, Middlemarch, has been described as the greatest novel in the English language by Martin Amis[2] and by Julian Barnes.[3]

Biography of Mother Teresa

Blessed Teresa of Calcutta, M.C.
MotherTeresa 094.jpg
Mother Teresa at a pro-life meeting in 1986 inBonnWest Germany
ReligionRoman Catholic
OrderSisters of Loreto
Missionaries of Charity
NationalityOttoman (1910-12); Serbian (1912-15); Bulgarian (1915-18);Yugoslav (1918-48); Indian (1948-1997)
BornAnjezë Gonxhe Bojaxhiu
26 August 1910
SkopjeOttoman Empire
Died5 September 1997 (aged 87)
CalcuttaWest Bengal, India
Senior posting
TitleSuperior General
Period in office1950–1997
SuccessorSister Nirmala Joshi, M.C.
Blessed Teresa of Calcutta, M.C.
StThomasMount Theresa.JPG
Bl. Mother Teresa Statue in St. Thomas Mount
Honored inCatholic Church
(Missionaries of Charity and India)
Beatified19 October 2003, St. Peter's BasilicaVatican City, by Pope John Paul II
MajorshrineMother House of the Missionaries of Charity, Calcutta (Kolkata), West Bengal, India
Feast5 September
PatronageWorld Youth Day
The Blessed Teresa of Calcutta, M.C.,[1] commonly known as Mother Teresa (26 August 1910 – 5 September 1997), was anAlbanian born, Indian Roman Catholic Religious Sister.
Mother Teresa founded the Missionaries of Charity, a Roman Catholic religious congregation, which in 2012 consisted of over 4,500 sisters and is active in 133 countries. They run hospices and homes for people with HIV/AIDS, leprosy and tuberculosis; soup kitchens; children's and family counseling programmes; orphanages; and schools. Members of the order must adhere to the vows of chastity, poverty and obedience, and the fourth vow, to give "Wholehearted and Free service to the poorest of the poor".
Mother Teresa was the recipient of numerous honours including the 1979 Nobel Peace Prize. In late 2003, she was beatified, the third step toward possible sainthood, giving her the title "Blessed Teresa of Calcutta". A second miracle credited to her intercession is required before she can be recognised as a saint by the Catholic Church.[1]
Admired and respected by many, she has also been accused of failing to provide medical care or painkillers, misusing charitable money, and maintaining positive relationships with dictators.[2][3]