Tuesday, 8 October 2013

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The first sheep (dolly) cloned from an adult somatic cell.

Dolly (5 July 1996 – 14 February 2003) was a female domestic sheep, and the first mammal to be cloned from an adult somatic cell, using the process of nuclear transfer.[2][3] She was cloned by Ian WilmutKeith Campbell and colleagues at the Roslin Institute, part of the University of Edinburgh, and the biotechnology company PPL Therapeutics near Edinburgh in Scotland, the United Kingdom. The funding for Dolly's cloning was provided by PPL Therapeutics and the Ministry of Agriculture.[4] She was born on 5 July 1996 and she lived until the age of six, at which point she died from a progressive lung disease.[1] She has been called "the world's most famous sheep" by sources including BBC News and Scientific American.[5][6] The cell used as the donor for the cloning of Dolly was taken from a mammary gland, and the production of a healthy clone therefore proved that a cell taken from a specific part of the body could recreate a whole individual. On Dolly's name, Wilmut stated "Dolly is derived from a mammary gland cell and we couldn't think of a more impressive pair of glands than Dolly Parton's".[1]

Lan wilmut is an embryologist and the creator of sheep (dolly).

Bronsted-Lowry theory of Acids and Bases.

Bronsted-Lowry Definition of Acids and Bases

We will use the Bronsted-Lowry definitions for acids and bases:Acids are species that donate a proton (H+).andbases are species that accept a proton.Acid example:HNO3 (aq) + H2<--> NO3-(aq) + H3O+(aq)Keq = a very large numberIn this example, HNO3 is an acid and H2O is acting as a base. NO3- is called the conjugate base of the acid HNO3, and H3O+ is the conjugate acid of the base H2O.Base example:NH3 (aq) + H2<--> NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq)K = 1.8x10-5In this example, NH3 is a base and H2O is acting as an acid. NH4+ is the conjugate acid of the base NH3, and OH- is the conjugate base of the acid H2O.A compound that can act as either an acid or a base, such as the H2O in the above examples, is called amphiprotic.
H2O + H2<--> H3O+(aq) + OH-(aq)
H2<--> H+(aq) + OH-(aq)
Kw = [H3O+][OH-] = [H+][OH-] = 1.00x10-14 (at 25oC)
(Using [H3O+] is equivalent to using [H+].)
Kw is called the dissociation constant or ionization constant of water.
In pure water [H+] = [OH-] = 1.00x10-7 M.
pH is a shorthand notation for -log[H+]
pOH is a shorthand notation for -log[OH-].
pH + pOH = 14.
Solutions are called
neutral when pH = 7, [H+] = [OH-] = 1.00x10-7
acidic when pH < 7, [H+] > 1.00x10-7
basic when pH > 7, [H+] < 1.00x10-7
Example: What is the pH of a solution of 0.025 M HNO3? (See example 13.4 in text.)
HNO3 is a strong acid and for all practical purposes dissociates completely.
HNO3(aq) + H2<--> NO3-(aq) + H3O+(aq)
[H+] = 0.025 M
pH = -log(0.025 M) = 1.6
What is the pOH of this solution? There are 2 ways to calculate pOH:
Kw = 1.00x10-14 = [0.025 M][OH-]
[OH-] = 4.00x10-13
pOH = -log(4.00x10-13) = 12.40
pOH = 14.00 - pH = 14.0 - 1.60 = 12.40
What are pH and pOH for a 0.0025 M solution of HNO3?
pH = -log(0.0025 M) = 2.60
pOH = 14.00 - 2.60 = 11.40
Notice that pH and pOH change by 1 for a factor of 10 change in [H+] and [OH-].

Kw, pH, and pOH

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Making of protein by Gene and its portion

Here we study about the working of Gene and its portion. Gene is divided into two portions these are Exon and Intron. First of all we know that gene is the genetic code of life and unit of DNA. When DNA nucleotide copied in the form of messenger RNA (mRNA)  Exon constitute messenger RNA (mRNA) and translation into protein. Intron intervene the sequence of protein. In above figure we can see the GENE table. This table have five step. In table, we can see in first step the portions of Gene (a part of DNA) Exons, Intron. In this step DNA nucleotide copied in the form of messenger RNA (mRNA). In second step, messenger RNA (mRNA) send sequence to ribosome for making protein (made of amino acids) . In third step ribosome read the sequence to make protein (known as translation). In above table, we can see in this step that blocks are present and symbols are found in blocks these are amino acid this means ribosome read sequence and arrange the amino acid to make protein. Now in fourth step we see the diagrams these diagrams show amino acid as we know that amino acids are show by symbols and diagrams. In next and last step amino acids are linked by bond this bond is peptide linkage which is found only in amino acids. Now specific  proteins are formed by amino acids.