Thursday, 31 October 2013

Biography of John D. Rockefeller

John D. Rockefeller
John D. Rockefeller 1885.jpg
John D. Rockefeller in 1885
BornJohn Davison Rockefeller
July 8, 1839
Richford, New York, U.S.
DiedMay 23, 1937 (aged 97)
The CasementsOrmond Beach, Florida, United States
Resting placeLake View CemeteryCleveland, Ohio, United States
41.511°N 81.591°W
Net worthIncrease$663.4 billion in 2007 dollars, according to List of wealthiest historical figures, based on information from Forbes – February 2008.
John Davison Rockefeller (July 8, 1839 – May 23, 1937) was an American industrialist and philanthropist. He was the founder of theStandard Oil Company, which dominated the oil industry and was the first great U.S. business trust. Rockefeller revolutionized thepetroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy. In 1870, he founded Standard Oil Company and aggressively ran it until he officially retired in 1897.[1]
Rockefeller founded Standard Oil as an Ohio partnership with his brother William along with Henry FlaglerJabez Bostwick, chemistSamuel Andrews, and a silent partner, Stephen V. Harkness. As kerosene and gasoline grew in importance, Rockefeller's wealth soared and he became the world's richest man and the first American worth more than a billion dollars.[a] Adjusting for inflation, he is often regarded as the richest person in history.[2][3][4][5]
Rockefeller spent the last 40 years of his life in retirement in his domicile in KykuitWestchester CountyNew York. His fortune was mainly used to create the modern systematic approach of targeted philanthropy. He was able to do this through the creation of foundations that had a major effect on medicine, education and scientific research.[6] His foundations pioneered the development of medical research and were instrumental in the eradication of hookworm and yellow fever.
Rockefeller was also the founder of both the University of Chicago and Rockefeller University and funded the establishment of Central Philippine University in the Philippines. He was a devoted Northern Baptist and supported many church-based institutions. Rockefeller adhered to total abstinence from alcohol and tobacco throughout his life.

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Wednesday, 30 October 2013

Biography of Harold Albert Lamb

Harold Albert Lamb (September 1, 1892 - April 9, 1962)[1] was an American historianscreenwritershort story writer, and novelist.Lamb was born in Alpine, New Jersey.[2] He attended Columbia University, where his interest in the peoples and history of Asia began. Lamb's tutors at Columbia included Carl Van Doren and John Erskine.[3] He later got a Guggenheim Fellowship for twelve months, starting on April 1, 1929.[4]
Lamb built a career with his writing from an early age. He got his start in the pulp magazines, quickly moving to the prestigious Adventure magazine, his primary fiction outlet for nineteen years. In 1927 he wrote a biography of Genghis Khan, and following on its success turned more and more to the writing of non-fiction, penning numerous biographies and popular history books until his death in 1962 in Rochester, N.Y. The success of Lamb's two-volume history of the Crusades led to his discovery by Cecil B. DeMille, who employed Lamb as a technical advisor on a related movie, The Crusades, and used him as a screenwriter on many other DeMille movies thereafter. Lamb spoke FrenchLatinPersian, andArabic, and, by his own account, a smattering of Manchu-Tartar.

Tuesday, 29 October 2013

Biography of George Washington

George Washington
Gilbert Stuart Williamstown Portrait of George Washington.jpg
1st President of the United States
In office
April 30, 1789[nb] – March 4, 1797
Vice PresidentJohn Adams
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byJohn Adams
Senior Officer of the Army
In office
July 13, 1798 – December 14, 1799
Appointed byJohn Adams
Preceded byJames Wilkinson
Succeeded byAlexander Hamilton
Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army
In office
June 15, 1775 – December 23, 1783
Appointed byContinental Congress
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byHenry Knox (Senior Officer of the Army)
Delegate to the Second Continental Congress
from Virginia
In office
May 10, 1775 – June 15, 1775
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byThomas Jefferson
Delegate to the First Continental Congress
from Virginia
In office
September 5, 1774 – October 26, 1774
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byPosition abolished
Personal details
BornFebruary 22, 1732
WestmorelandVirginiaBritish America
DiedDecember 14, 1799 (aged 67)
Mount VernonVirginiaU.S.
Resting placeWashington Family Tomb
Mount VernonVirginia
Political partynone
Spouse(s)Martha Dandridge Custis
SignatureCursive signature in ink
Military service
AllegianceKingdom of Great Britain Great Britain
United States United States
Service/branchVirginia provincial militia
Continental Army
United States Army
Years of serviceMilitia: 1752–1758
Continental Army: 1775–1783
U.S. Army: 1798–1799
RankGeneral of the Armies(Promoted posthumously: 1976)
CommandsVirginia Colony's regiment
Continental Army
United States Army
Battles/warsFrench and Indian War
 • Battle of Jumonville Glen
 • Battle of Fort Necessity
 • Braddock Expedition
 • Battle of the Monongahela
 • Forbes Expedition
American Revolutionary War
 • Boston campaign
 • New York and New Jersey campaign
 • Philadelphia campaign
 • Yorktown campaign
AwardsCongressional Gold Medal
Thanks of Congress
^ March 4 is the official start of the first presidential term. April 6 is when Congress counted the votes of the Electoral College and certified a president. April 30 is when Washington was sworn in.
George Washington (February 22, 1732 [O.S. February 11, 1731][Note 1][Note 2] – December 14, 1799) was the first President of the United States (1789–1797), the commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He presided over the convention that drafted the United States Constitution, which replaced the Articles of Confederation and which remains the supreme law of the land.
Washington was elected President as the unanimous choice of the electors in 1788, and he served two terms in office. He oversaw the creation of a strong, well-financed national government that maintained neutrality in the wars raging in Europe, suppressed rebellion, and won acceptance among Americans of all types. His leadership style established many forms and rituals of government that have been used since, such as using a cabinet system and delivering an inaugural address. Further, the peaceful transition from his presidency to the presidency of John Adams established a tradition that continues into the 21st century. Washington was hailed as "father of his country" even during his lifetime.[3][4]
Washington was born into the provincial gentry of Colonial Virginia; his wealthy planter family owned tobacco plantations and slaves. After both his father and older brother died when he was young, Washington became personally and professionally attached to the powerful William Fairfax, who promoted his career as a surveyor and soldier. Washington quickly became a senior officer in the colonial forces during the first stages of the French and Indian War. Chosen by the Second Continental Congress in 1775 to be commander-in-chief of the Continental Army in the American Revolution, Washington managed to force the British out of Boston in 1776, but was defeated and almost captured later that year when he lost New York City. After crossing the Delaware River in the dead of winter, hedefeated the British in two battles, retook New Jersey and restored momentum to the Patriot cause.
Because of his strategy, Revolutionary forces captured two major British armies at Saratoga in 1777 and Yorktown in 1781. Historians laud Washington for his selection and supervision of his generals, encouragement of morale and ability to hold together the army, coordination with the state governors and state militia units, relations with Congress and attention to supplies, logistics, and training. In battle, however, Washington was repeatedly outmaneuvered by British generals with larger armies. After victory had been finalized in 1783, Washington resigned as Commander-in-chief rather than seize power, proving his opposition to dictatorship and his commitment to American republicanism.
Dissatisfied with the weaknesses of the Continental Congress, in 1787 Washington presided over the Constitutional Convention that devised a new Federal government of the United StatesElected unanimously as the first President of the United States in 1789, he attempted to bring rival factions together to unify the nation. He supported Alexander Hamilton's programs to pay off all state and national debt, to implement an effective tax system and to create a national bank (despite opposition from Thomas Jefferson).
Washington proclaimed the United States neutral in the wars raging in Europe after 1793. He avoided war with Great Britain and guaranteed a decade of peace and profitable trade by securing the Jay Treaty in 1795, despite intense opposition from theJeffersonians. Although he never officially joined the Federalist Party, he supported its programs. Washington's Farewell Address was an influential primer on republican virtue and a warning against partisanship, sectionalism, and involvement in foreign wars. He retired from the presidency in 1797 and returned to his home, Mount Vernon, and his domestic life where he managed a variety of enterprises. He freed all his slaves by his final will.
Washington had a vision of a great and powerful nation that would be built on republican lines using federal power. He sought to use the national government to preserve liberty, improve infrastructure, open the western lands, promote commerce, found a permanent capital, reduce regional tensions and promote a spirit of American nationalism.[5] At his death, Washington was eulogized as "first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen" by Henry Lee.[6]
The Federalists made him the symbol of their party but for many years, the Jeffersonians continued to distrust his influence and delayed building the Washington Monument. As the leader of the first successful revolution against a colonial empire in world history, Washington became an international icon for liberation and nationalism, especially in France and Latin America.[7] He is consistently ranked among the top three presidents of the United States, according to polls of both scholars and the general public.

Saturday, 26 October 2013

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Zaheer-ud-Din Babar by Aslam Rahi in pdf

Title of the book is "Zaheer-ud-Din Babar" Written by Aslam Rahi M.A.Complete biography and history of the founder of Mughlia Empire of india and great ruler of the muslim world. Learn in urdu language. Download in pdf format.

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The Book Of Mormon by Joseph Smith in pdf

The Book of Mormon is a sacred text of the Latter Day Saint movement, which adherents believe contains writings of ancientprophets who lived on the American continent from approximately 2200 BC to AD 421.[1][2] It was first published in March 1830 byJoseph Smith as The Book of Mormon: An Account Written by the Hand of Mormon upon Plates Taken from the Plates of Nephi.[3]

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Friday, 25 October 2013

Cache memory

1. Pronounced as Cash (like the money). Cache is a high-speed access area that can be either a reserved section of main memory or a storage device. The two main cache types are memory cache and disk cache. Memory cache is a portion on memory of high-speed static RAM (SRAM) and is effective because most programs access the same data or instructions over-and-over. By keeping as much of this information as possible in SRAM, the computer avoids accessing the slower DRAM. Most computers today come with L3 cache or L2 cache, while older computers included only L1 cache.
2. Like memory cachingdisk caching is used to access commonly accessed data. However, instead of using high-speed SRAM, a disk cache uses conventional main memory. The most recently accessed data from a disk is stored in a memory buffer. When a program needs to access data from the disk, it first checks the disk cache to see if the data is there. Disk caching can dramatically improve the performance of applications because accessing a byte of data in RAM can be thousands of times faster than accessing a byte on a hard drive.
3. Another cache is known as "Internet browser cache" also known as "Temporary Internet Files" in Internet Explorer. Internet cache is used to help improve how fast data is opened while browsing the Internet. In most cases, each time a web page is opened, it is sent to your browser's temporary cache on your hard drive. If that page is accessed again and has not been modified, the browser will open the page from your cache instead of downloading the page again. This saves users a lot of time, especially if that the user is using a modem, and can also help save the web page owner on bandwidth.
4. A cache server is a computer or network device that has been setup to store web pages that have been accessed by users on a network. Any user trying to access a web page that has already been stored on the cache server will be sent the stored version instead of downloading the web page again. This helps reduce network and Internet traffic congestion as well as saves the company on bandwidth costs.